Increased concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) are caused by various human activities that impacted on global warming and climate change. GHGs are gases in the atmosphere which cause the greenhouse effect. Climate change has become a development challenge both locally and globally. Indonesia accepts the double consequences of climate change because not only affected by the impacts of climate change but also become a contributor to GHG emissions. Climate change adaptation and mitigation are encouraged to minimize the risk. Climate change mitigation is defined as activities to reduce GHG concentration. While adaptation is activities to adapt in response to the impacts of climate change.
Indonesia has a commitment to climate change. The government through Presidential Regulation No. 61 /2011 concerning the National Action Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions (RAN GRK) is committed to reducing GHG emissions by 26% from business as usual in 2020 with domestic resources and 41% with international cooperation. In 2015 during Climate Change Summit in Paris, Indonesia committed to raising its GHG emission reduction target become 29 % by 2030.
Based on the regulation, the provincial government with the support of regencies/cities has the obligation to develop a Regional Action Plan for Reducing GHG Emissions (RAD-GRK). Following up on this policy, the Central Java Provincial Government has established a Regional Action Plan (RAD) for Reducing GHG Emissions in Central Java Province which has been ratified in Governor Regulation No.43 of 2012. Through this RAD-GRK, Central Java Province is committed to reducing GHG emissions by 12, 46% up to 2020. The city of Semarang has also carried out an inventory of GHG emission reductions compiled in 2010 and was updated in 2017.
The calculation of the 2017 GHG Inventory shows the status of Semarang City’s GHG emissions in 2013-2016 showing a tendency of decreasing numbers from the total emissions produced. The highest emission reduction in the period 2013-2016 is 15.21%. In 2016, the total emissions of Semarang City were 4,417,496.25 tons of CO2e. Based on the type of GHG emissions, CO2 emission is the largest contributor (99.65%), CH4 of 0.34% and N2O reaching 0.003%.
In 2012, the Semarang City Climate Change Strategy in 2010-2020 was compiled. To achieve the goals and commitments to deal with climate changes, seven strategies were set, namely: (1) Increasing the Energy Efficiency, (2) Developing Integrated Waste Management Systems, (3) Controlling Disease related to Impact Climate Change, (4) Improvement of Water Supply and Services, (5) Capacity Building for Disaster Preparedness Related to Climate Change, (6) Flood and Tidal Inundation Impact Control, and (7) Building Control and Spatial Use. Based on the strategies, Semarang City has a target of 116,180 tons CO2e reduction or equivalent to 1.9%. Meanwhile, GHG emissions will continue to be generated from various activities in the city of Semarang. In 2030, GHG emissions are projected to reach 130,393,151.17 tons of CO2e or an increase of 132,907,445.80 tons of CO2e from 2013.
Semarang City’s climate change mitigation efforts must continue to be able to contribute to the national GHG emission reduction commitment. In 2018, the City Government of Semarang collaborated with several stakeholders including University, NGOs and the private sector to develop the action plan for GHG mitigation. The purpose of this activity is to develop an action plan to reduce GHG emissions on the Semarang City scale in order to support the commitment to reduce emissions within the framework of sustainable development in 2018-2030.
The process of preparing the GHG mitigation document involves several experts namely Dr.Ing-Wiwandari Handayani and Rukuh Setiadi, Ph.D. from the Department of Regional and City Planning, UNDIP; Mega Anggraeni from the City Initiative for Climate Change (IKUPI) and Ratna Budiarti from the Bintari Foundation who are representatives of NGOs; and CV. Piramida. The involvement of various stakeholders will enrich the results of the analysis of the Semarang City Climate Change GHG Mitigation. Semarang City Climate Change Mitigation Regional Action Plan 2018 – 2030 is used as a reference for all stakeholders in Semarang City in carrying out various activities that directly or indirectly will reduce GHG emissions.